Battle of Onjong

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Battle of Onjong

Coordinates: 40°6′33″N 125°53′47″E / 40.10917°N 125.89639°E / 40.10917; 125.89639 (Onjong-ri)

Battle of Onjong
Part of Korean War

Map of Chinese intervention, October 25 – November 1, 1950
DateOctober 25−29, 1950
LocationNear Onjong, North Korea
Result Decisive Chinese victory
 China  South Korea
Commanders and leaders
Peng Dehuai
Han Xianchu
40th Corps

ROK II Corps

Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown
North Korean Offensive
UN Command Counteroffensive
Chinese Intervention
Air operations

Post Armistice

The Battle of Onjong (Korean: 온정리 전투), also known as the Battle of Wenjing (Chinese: 温井战斗; pinyin: Wēn Jǐng Zhàn Dòu), was one of the first engagements between Chinese and United Nations forces during the Korean War. It took place around Onjong in present-day North Korea from October 25 to October 29, 1950. As the main focus of the Chinese First Phase Campaign, the Chinese 40th Corps conducted a series of ambushes against the Republic of Korea II Corps, effectively destroying the right flank of the United States Eighth Army while stopping the UN advances north toward the Yalu River.


Main article: UN Offensive, 1950

The Korean War began in June 1950 with the Korean People's Army (KPA) of the north attacking the Republic of Korea in the south. The invasion was almost successful in conquering all of the Republic of Korea until the United Nations (UN) intervened, sending ground forces into the country under the command of the United States. The UN forces initially experienced early defeats until the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter, where the UN forces reversed North Korea's momentum. By October 1950, the KPA was effectively destroyed by the UN forces after the landing at Inchon. Despite the strong objections from the People's Republic of China on North Korea's northern border, the US Eighth Army crossed the 38th parallel and advanced towards the Sino-Korean border at the Yalu River. As part of the Thanksgiving Offensive to end the war, the Republic of Korea (ROK) II Corps, which was composed of the ROK 6th, 7th and 8th Infantry Division, was ordered to attack north towards the Yalu River through the village of Onjong on October 23, 1950.

In response to the UN advances, China's Chairman, Mao Zedong, ordered the People's Liberation Army's North East Frontier Force to enter North Korea and engage UN forces under the name People's Volunteer Army (PVA). In order to stabilize the rapidly collapsing Korean front and to push back the advancing UN forces, Mao authorized the First Phase Campaign, a bridgehead-building operation with the aim of destroying the ROK II Corps, the vanguard and the right flank of the US Eighth Army, advancing up the along the Taebaek Mountains in the middle of the peninsula. After the Chinese leadership finally settled the issue of armed intervention on October 18, Mao ordered the PVA to enter Korea on October 19 under strict secrecy.

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